How does MPPT work?
Solar charge controller/regulator with MPPT (Maximum power point tracking) is a technology which is specifically designed to work with almost all the photovoltaic modules. Of course, it is for the solar systems where module voltages are higher then the battery voltages. It is an electronic system that helps the solar module produce all the power that they are capable of. However, it is not the mechanical tracking system that physically moves the modules towards the sun's direction to convert more sun energy to electrical energy.
Check out the functions of a normal PV regulator. It monitors the battery charging and gives them the protection from getting overcharged or undercharged. We connect the regulator directly to the battery and then to the solar module. A good quality MPPT charge controller calculates the voltage at which the module can produce maximum power as per its capability.
Efficiency of most of the MPPT charge controller is between 93 to 96 percent. A MPPT charge controller is useful in winters and on cloudy days when there is virtually no sunshine. This is the time when more power is required to charge the battery to maintain the SOC level.
A MPPT solar regulator can be a beautiful combination with a grid-tied solar module. Other advantage of a MPPT solar regulator is that you save a lot in the wiring expenses, which means that a smaller gauge wiring can be used.
a) Voltage & current regulation, PWM (Pulse width modulation) control, current compensation load disconnection, automatic load reconnection, and temperature compensation.
b) Electronic Protection:- Over charging protection, deep discharging protection, reverse polarity protection from the module side and from battery side. Reverse polarity protection from internal fuse, short circuit protection, and over voltage protection at module input. Also make sure that there is open circuit protection without battery, over temperature and over load protection, and battery over voltage shutdown.