Natural-based drugs are important bioactive substances that have been used for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Moreover, several conditions are needed to develop novel drugs with higher efficacies and common side effects. Natural sources play important roles in the production of drugs. Surprisingly, some natural-based drugs are the only choices for preventing and treating relevant diseases. In addition, natural-based compounds especially plant isolated substances, are the main important patterns for effective drug design in drug discovery studies. Several phytochemical compounds, especially alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids and flavonoids, have been used for medicinal purposes. These compounds have been isolated from the important plant families. For instance, Atropa, Scopolia, Duboisia, Datura, Hyoscyamus and Mandragora plants from Solanaceae family have anticholinergic alkaloids, Catharanthus plant from Apocynaceae family and Taxus plant from Taxaceae family have the anticancer alkaloids, Artemisia plant from Asteraceae family contains antimalarial sesuiterpene lactones, and Papaver plants from Papaveraceae family contains antinociceptive and antitussive alkaloids.
The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE/PubMED, Scopus and Embase were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane tool. All of the themes stated below were reviewed in the selected publications from the above-mentioned databases:
- Secondary metabolite production with at least two-fold higher than primary conditions
- Secondary metabolite production with optimised conditions
- The collection of the best plant species for the production of pharmaceutical, natural compounds
- The selection of the best plant cell lines
All data for high scale Meta-analysis Expert’s production of secondary metabolites and five selected drugs were extracted and collected from peer-reviewed original articles that have been obtained from scientific journals. Moreover, data have been filtered and removed the duplicate cases and arranged using RevMan® software. The final data Writing A Meta-analysis were coded, including the percentages of methods and effective methods. In addition to a number of cases, all methods and outcomes have been calculated based on the obtained data, and all patients have been analysed.
Methods for Production
In the study, four main methods for producing five high important plant-based drugs, including atropine, paclitaxel, vincristine, camptothecin and colchicine, have been selected and evaluated. The main techniques and plant sources for the production of mentioned drugs. According to the results, the frequency of cell suspension, callus, hairy root and immobilised plant cell methods for producing the drugs was 30.79%, respectively.
Based on the Clinical Meta-Analysis Experts results, the efficacy values of more important methods for producing the plant-based drugs were approximately 90% to 100%. Many challenges have been made to optimise the production of plant-based drugs by alternative practices, but no extensive studies have been done to control the efficacy of these methods.
Plant cell technology is an important strategy for the production of plant-based drugs. It has several advantages such as high accuracy, repeatability, and productivity; this technology can be used instead of whole herbs. These methods should be optimised and commercialised for each natural compound.
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