It is an obvious fact to know the need of building bridges which is to build a cross over a road, railways or over a water channel mainly. There have been many big and small bridges which have been made in the history of human lives where many obstacles and barriers have been crossed. We have thus also heard about many Bridge Repairs and Strengthening work done on the bridges with Concrete Road Repairs and tests also taking place. Bridge Repair and Strengthening of the bridge mainly depends upon the type of bridge which eventually depends upon the various specific physical features to be depend upon which also involves the design scope requirements too where big bridges can be hold on small planks with over a stream crossover or having a large structural turnout to support the traffic and maintain it over a wide river.


Hence, there are 3 main components of a bridge which is the substructure, the foundation and the superstructure where each of the ore areas are interconnected with each other maintaining piles and piles with contracture of the foundation of the bridge to be the primary followed by the sub-structures which have pier and abutments, while coming the superstructure which mainly includes the bearings, deck and girders eventually. While foundation is the base, the sub-structure gives away the support for the heavy superstructure to stand above it where usually the walking path or roadways is eventually built.


Now the 3 main parts of the bridge are stated below, they are as follows:


Foundation: The foundation mainly consists of piles which are laid at the bottom to provide support to the bridge and making it as the initial foundation while also the weight and stresses which are eventually applied to them by the weight of the bridge are transmitted from the ground making the foundation to be strong and in a stable condition. The materials and the design of the pile mainly thus depends upon various factors such as the type of soil, the instability factors, the load bearing capacity and many more where mainly over rivers and near water the design should be thoroughly considered. Other than the piles, caps and best are also set together giving the whole foundation a tough substructure.


Substructure: Substructures mainly consists of abutment, piers and pier cap where the bridges require a vertical support near their end specifically with the functioning of the retention walls to be harshly strong where the building reinforced concrete should be taken care of and the capability needs to be withstanded with the maintenance of high horizontal force. Then it also has piers and pier caps which are known as the headstock and mainly function as a strong space to transfer and then load the bearings.

Superstructure: The last joint is the superstructure which mainly has the girders joints where all the pile caps are altogether taken in order where the extension over them is mainly taken place with referrings of beams and supporting the deck of the bridge.


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